Consists of combining different clauses to get different results out of your sentences.
These combinations require us to use various grammatical devices and various forms of punctuation.
Subject: The person or thing performing the action in the clause. For purposes of our combining, a subject is more than one word long.
Predicate: The action being performed. For purposes of our combining, a predicate is more than one word long.
Independent Clause (IC): An IC is a group of words consisting of a subject, a predicate, and a complete thought. It can stand alone as a sentence.
Dependent Clause (DC): A DC is a group of words which cannot stand alone as a sentence. It frequently has the subject and predicate, but lacks a complete thought.
1) Each clause must be separated by something, or you will have an error.
2) Good writing consists of multiple sentence types. Variety is key.
3) The more advanced your sentence types, the more advanced your writing will be, and thus, the higher the grade.
1) Simple Sentence: Consists of a singe IC.
EX: He ran.
EX: The greasy man with the sweaty mustache ran to KFC and slipped on chicken fat eating the boneless barbecue wings.
Subject: The fat man with the sweaty mustache
Predicate: ran to KFC and slipped on chicken fat eating the boneless barbecue wings
2) Compound Sentence: Consists of two ICís combined together.
A) comma plus coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
EX: He ran, and he fell.
EX: He fell, so he got back up.
B) semicolon (;)
EX: He ran; he fell.
EX: He ran; he won the race.
C) semicolon plus conjunctive adverb plus comma (indeed, consequently, therefore, however, meanwhile, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, etc.)
EX: He ran; indeed, he won the race.
EX: He ran; nevertheless, he lost the race
EX: He ran; meanwhile, his heart was about to explode.
D) There are other methods as well, including the colon (:), dashes (--), and
correlative conjunctions (bothÖand, eitherÖor, etc.)
3) Complex Sentence: Consists of an IC joined with a DC.
NOTE: The DC requires a subordinate clause (after, although, before, unless,
until, while, once, even though, because, even if, even, whether, as if, etc.)
A) IC before DC, use a subordinate clause and no punctuation.
EX: He ran although he lost the race.
EX: He lost the race even though he ran as fast as he could.
B) DC before IC, start with subordinate clause and use a comma in the middle.
EX: Because he ran as fast as he could, he heart exploded.
EX: Even if he lost the race, he won a personal victory by completing it.
4) Compound-Complex Sentence: Two ICís joined with one DC using any of the methods above.