Sentence Combining:

 

Consists of combining different clauses to get different results out of your sentences. 

These combinations require us to use various grammatical devices and various forms of punctuation.

 

Definitions:

 

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Subject: The person or thing performing the action in the clause.  For purposes of our combining, a subject is more than one word long.

 

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Predicate: The action being performed.  For purposes of our combining, a predicate is more than one word long.

 

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Independent Clause (IC): An IC is a group of words consisting of a subject, a predicate, and a complete thought.  It can stand alone as a sentence.

 

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Dependent Clause (DC): A DC is a group of words which cannot stand alone as a sentence.  It frequently has the subject and predicate, but lacks a complete thought.

 

 

Remember:            

 

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1) Each clause must be separated by something, or you will have an error.

 

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2) Good writing consists of multiple sentence types.  Variety is key.

 

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3) The more advanced your sentence types, the more advanced your writing will be, and thus, the higher the grade.

 

Sentence Types:

 

1) Simple Sentence:  Consists of a singe IC.

 

            EX: He ran.

 

                        Subject: He

                        Predicate: Ran

 

            EX: The greasy man with the sweaty mustache ran to KFC and slipped on chicken fat eating the boneless barbecue wings.

 

            Subject: The fat man with the sweaty mustache

 

                        Predicate: ran to KFC and slipped on chicken fat eating the boneless barbecue wings

 

2) Compound Sentence: Consists of two ICís combined together.

 

A)    comma plus coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

 

EX: He ran, and he fell.

 

EX: He fell, so he got back up.

 

B)     semicolon (;) 

 

EX: He ran; he fell.

 

EX: He ran; he won the race.

 

C)    semicolon plus conjunctive adverb plus comma (indeed, consequently, therefore, however, meanwhile, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, etc.)

 

EX: He ran; indeed, he won the race.

 

EX: He ran; nevertheless, he lost the race

 

EX: He ran; meanwhile, his heart was about to explode.

 

D)    There are other methods as well, including the colon (:), dashes (--), and

correlative conjunctions (bothÖand, eitherÖor, etc.)

 

3) Complex Sentence: Consists of an IC joined with a DC.

           

            NOTE: The DC requires a subordinate clause (after, although, before, unless,

until, while, once, even though, because, even if, even, whether, as if, etc.)

 

A)    IC before DC, use a subordinate clause and no punctuation.

 

            EX: He ran although he lost the race.

 

            EX: He lost the race even though he ran as fast as he could.

 

B)     DC before IC, start with subordinate clause and use a comma in the middle.

 

EX: Because he ran as fast as he could, he heart exploded.

 

EX: Even if he lost the race, he won a personal victory by completing it.

 

 

4) Compound-Complex Sentence: Two ICís joined with one DC using any of the methods above.

 

 

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